Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is converted into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer: There are two types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity on its own. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and more are the most effective samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (like quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied for the structure, it generates an electrical charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way around. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism could be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to get voltage changes and thus can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker over a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also according to Torque Transducer. In this instance, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while reducing the input power concurrently, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually used to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with all the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical energy and vice versa. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful option for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when cutting edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated underneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good selection for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to give you the controller the correct information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration through providing the correct amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any sort of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. According to Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system having a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal of the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is often used in fast Jr S Beam Load Cell for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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